corporate law in turkey


Corporate law in Turkey plays a vital role in establishing and regulating the framework within which businesses operate. It encompasses a set of legal principles, rules, and regulations that govern the formation, organization, management, and dissolution of corporations. Corporate law in Turkey aims to strike a balance between protecting the interests of shareholders, promoting corporate accountability, and ensuring the stability of the business environment.

The significance of corporate law in modern business society cannot be overstated. It provides the legal structure that allows businesses to thrive and contribute to economic growth. By defining the rights, obligations, and responsibilities of various stakeholders, corporate law establishes the foundation for corporate governance, ensuring that decision-making processes are fair, transparent, and accountable.

One of the key principles of corporate law in Turkey is the protection of shareholder rights. Shareholders invest their capital in corporations with the expectation of a return on their investment. Corporate law safeguards their interests by establishing mechanisms such as voting rights, access to information, and the ability to hold directors and officers accountable for their actions. This protection encourages investment, fosters trust, and enables the efficient allocation of resources in the corporate sector.

Corporate law in Turkey also plays a crucial role in promoting corporate accountability. It imposes legal duties on directors and officers to act in the best interests of the corporation and its stakeholders. These fiduciary duties require them to exercise care, diligence, and loyalty in their decision-making processes. Additionally, corporate law sets standards for financial reporting and disclosure, ensuring transparency and preventing fraudulent practices.

Furthermore, corporate law contributes to the stability of the business environment by establishing rules for corporate transactions, such as mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures. These rules provide a framework for negotiating and executing such transactions, protecting the interests of all parties involved and facilitating economic growth.

In summary, corporate law is of paramount importance in modern business society. Its key principles and regulations create a transparent and well-functioning corporate sector by protecting shareholder rights, promoting corporate accountability, and establishing a stable business environment. Understanding and adhering to corporate law is essential for businesses to operate legally, ethically, and successfully in today’s complex and interconnected global economy.

Turkish Commercial Code Article 126 – Subject to the provisions specific to each type of company, the general provisions of the Turkish Civil Code regarding legal entities, and the provisions of the Turkish Code of Obligations regarding general partnerships in matters not covered by this Section, shall apply to commercial companies to the extent that they are compatible with the nature of each type of company.


Corporate law in Turkey encompasses various fundamental aspects that govern the establishment, operation, and regulation of companies. One key aspect is the recognition of different types of companies, such as general partnerships, limited partnerships, joint-stock companies, limited liability companies, and cooperatives. These are the fundamental aspects of corporate law in Turkey:

  • Formation and Organization of Corporations: Corporate law provides the legal foundation for the formation and organization of corporations. It outlines the requirements and procedures for incorporating a business entity, defining its structure, and allocating rights and responsibilities among shareholders, directors, and officers. This framework establishes the legal personality of a corporation, distinguishing it from its shareholders and allowing it to engage in various business activities. You can review our article here regarding which type of company is suitable for your business activities.
  • Corporate Governance and Accountability: One of the fundamental aspects of corporate law in Turkey is corporate governance, which refers to the mechanisms and processes through which corporations are directed, controlled, and held accountable. It sets out the roles and duties of directors, officers, and shareholders, aiming to ensure transparency, fairness, and accountability within the organization. Corporate governance mechanisms, such as board structures, shareholder rights, and disclosure requirements, promote responsible decision-making, safeguard shareholder interests, and mitigate conflicts of interest.
  • Shareholder Rights and Protection: Corporate law establishes and safeguards the rights of shareholders, who are the owners of the corporation. These rights include the right to participate in decision-making through voting, the right to access relevant information about the company, and the right to receive a fair share of profits through dividends. Additionally, corporate law provides mechanisms for minority shareholder protection, preventing the abuse of power by majority shareholders and offering remedies in case of oppressive or prejudicial conduct.
  • Corporate Finance and Securities Regulation: Corporate law regulates the issuance and trading of securities, ensuring fair and transparent capital markets. It imposes disclosure requirements on corporations, mandating the provision of accurate and timely information to investors. Securities regulations also address insider trading, market manipulation, and fraudulent activities, aiming to maintain market integrity and protect investors from unfair practices.
  • Mergers, Acquisitions, and Corporate Restructuring: Corporate law governs the process of mergers, acquisitions, and corporate restructuring, providing a legal framework for these complex transactions. It sets out the procedures and requirements for obtaining shareholder approval, conducting due diligence, and ensuring the fair treatment of stakeholders involved. Corporate law in Turkey aims to strike a balance between facilitating business combinations and protecting the interests of shareholders and other affected parties.
  • Corporate Social Responsibility and Stakeholder Management: In recent years, corporate law has increasingly recognized the importance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and stakeholder management. It acknowledges that corporations have broader responsibilities beyond maximizing shareholder value and encourages businesses to consider the interests of various stakeholders, including employees, communities, and the environment. Corporate law may incorporate CSR principles and requirements, promoting ethical conduct and sustainable business practices.

international corporate


Corporate law serves as the cornerstone of modern business regulation, providing the legal framework for corporate formation, governance, accountability, and transactions. It plays a crucial role in maintaining the stability and integrity of the corporate sector, safeguarding shareholder rights, and ensuring transparency and fairness. As businesses continue to evolve and face new challenges, corporate law will adapt to address emerging issues and strike a balance between commercial interests and broader societal concerns. By upholding the principles of corporate law, we can foster a corporate environment that promotes economic growth, responsible business conduct, and the well-being of all stakeholders involved.

However, it is important to acknowledge that corporate law is not without its challenges and criticisms. Critics argue that it often prioritizes the interests of shareholders over other stakeholders, leading to unethical practices and a disregard for social and environmental concerns. Additionally, the complexity of corporate law and the high costs associated with legal compliance can pose barriers, particularly for small businesses.

To address these concerns, there have been calls for corporate law in Turkey to evolve and adapt to the changing business landscape. This includes exploring new models of governance that incorporate a broader range of stakeholder interests, promoting sustainability and responsible business practices. It also involves enhancing transparency and accountability through robust reporting and disclosure requirements, enabling stakeholders to make informed decisions and hold corporations accountable for their actions.

Furthermore, the role of corporate law extends beyond national boundaries, as businesses increasingly operate in a globalized world. International corporate law frameworks and harmonization efforts aim to facilitate cross-border transactions, ensure consistency in regulatory standards, and provide a level playing field for businesses operating in multiple jurisdictions.

In conclusion, corporate law is a crucial aspect of modern business society. It establishes the legal framework for the formation, governance, and operation of corporations, ensuring accountability, transparency, and stability. By protecting shareholder rights, promoting responsible corporate conduct, and addressing emerging challenges, corporate law plays a vital role in fostering a business environment that benefits not only shareholders but also employees, communities, and the broader society. As the business landscape continues to evolve, corporate law must adapt to address new challenges and strike a balance between commercial interests and societal concerns, thereby promoting sustainable and ethical business practices.


Corporate law plays a crucial role in ensuring the proper functioning and regulation of business entities. Here are some reasons highlighting the importance of corporate law:

  • Legal Structure and Protection: Corporate law provides a legal framework for businesses to establish themselves as separate legal entities. By forming a corporation, business owners can enjoy limited liability protection, separating their personal assets from the liabilities of the business. This provides a level of security and protects the personal assets of shareholders, directors, and officers.
  • Investor Confidence and Capital Formation: Clear and well-defined corporate laws foster investor confidence in the business environment. Investors are more likely to invest in corporations that operate under a robust legal framework, ensuring transparency, accountability, and protection of their rights. Corporate law provides the rules and regulations that govern fundraising activities, securities offerings, and investor protections, which are essential for attracting capital and promoting economic growth.
  • Governance and Accountability: Corporate law sets guidelines for the internal governance structure of corporations, including the roles and responsibilities of directors, officers, and shareholders. These regulations ensure that corporations are managed effectively and ethically, and that decision-making processes are transparent and accountable. By imposing fiduciary duties on directors and officers, corporate law promotes the responsible management of corporate affairs and protects the interests of shareholders.
  • Compliance and Regulation: Corporate law establishes compliance requirements for corporations, ensuring that they adhere to legal, ethical, and financial standards. This includes financial reporting, disclosure obligations, corporate transparency, and compliance with antitrust, labor, environmental, and consumer protection laws. By enforcing compliance, corporate law protects stakeholders, promotes fair competition, and contributes to a stable and trustworthy business environment.
  • Dispute Resolution: Corporate law provides mechanisms for resolving disputes in corporation among shareholders, directors, officers, and other stakeholders. It offers various avenues for dispute resolution, including negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and litigation. Efficient dispute resolution processes help maintain business relationships, protect shareholder rights, and provide a means of recourse in case of disagreements or breaches of legal obligations.
  • Economic Development and Job Creation: By providing a legal framework that encourages business formation, corporate law contributes to economic development and job creation. It facilitates entrepreneurship, attracts investment, and promotes business growth, which, in turn, stimulates economic activity, innovation, and employment opportunities.

In summary, corporate law in Turkey and international corporate law play a vital role in establishing a legal structure for businesses, protecting the interests of stakeholders, ensuring good governance and accountability, promoting compliance and regulation, facilitating dispute resolution, and fostering economic development. It provides the necessary framework to facilitate the smooth operation of corporations, protect the rights of shareholders, solve disputes in corporations and maintain a fair and thriving business environment.


International corporate law plays a pivotal role in facilitating and regulating business activities on a global scale. As companies expand their operations across borders, it becomes essential to have a legal framework that addresses the complexities and challenges of conducting business internationally. This essay explores the key aspects of international corporate law, its significance in the global business environment, and the challenges it faces in promoting harmonization and ensuring corporate accountability.

  • Definition and Scope: International corporate law refers to the body of legal principles, rules, and regulations that govern the establishment, operation, and dissolution of companies engaged in cross-border activities. It encompasses a wide range of areas, including company formation, corporate governance, mergers and acquisitions, securities regulations, intellectual property, competition law, and dispute resolution mechanisms.
  • Facilitating Global Business: International corporate law provides a framework that enables companies to engage in cross-border transactions with confidence. It establishes legal certainty, protects the rights of stakeholders, and fosters trust among international business partners. It offers mechanisms for establishing subsidiaries, joint ventures, and branches in foreign jurisdictions, ensuring compliance with local laws while preserving the integrity of the parent company’s governance structure.
  • Harmonization and Standardization: Efforts towards harmonizing international corporate law have gained momentum in recent years. Organizations such as the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) work towards promoting convergence in corporate laws across jurisdictions. Harmonization initiatives aim to reduce legal complexities, streamline business processes, and enhance cross-border cooperation.
  • Corporate Governance and Accountability: International corporate law places significant emphasis on corporate governance to ensure transparency, accountability, and the protection of stakeholders’ interests. Principles such as the duty of directors, disclosure requirements, and shareholders’ rights are fundamental to maintaining ethical business practices globally. By establishing corporate governance standards, international corporate law seeks to prevent fraud, corruption, and other misconduct that could undermine the integrity of businesses and damage investor confidence.
  • Regulatory Challenges: One of the primary challenges in international corporate law lies in balancing the diverse legal systems and cultural differences across jurisdictions. The lack of uniformity in corporate laws among countries can create complexities and uncertainties for companies operating internationally. Compliance with multiple regulatory frameworks, managing different reporting requirements, and addressing varying corporate practices present ongoing challenges for businesses engaged in global operations.
  • Dispute Resolution: Resolving disputes in the international corporate arena requires specialized mechanisms. International arbitration, as an alternative to traditional litigation, offers flexibility, neutrality, and enforceability across borders for disputes in corporations. Many countries have ratified international conventions, such as the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards, to facilitate the resolution of cross-border disputes. These mechanisms contribute to the stability and predictability of international business transactions.
  • Emerging Trends and Future Directions: Globalization, digitalization, and evolving business models have introduced new challenges to international corporate law. Issues such as data protection, cybersecurity, e-commerce, and sustainable business practices require ongoing adaptation and development of legal frameworks. International cooperation and collaboration among governments, regulatory bodies, and businesses are crucial to addressing these emerging trends effectively.

International corporate law serves as a fundamental framework that governs global business activities, ensuring legal certainty, promoting harmonization, and safeguarding stakeholders’ interests. While challenges persist in achieving full harmonization and managing cross-border complexities, ongoing efforts to enhance cooperation and standardization will continue to shape the future of international corporate law. By adapting to emerging trends and addressing regulatory challenges, international corporate law can support sustainable economic growth, foster responsible business practices, and contribute to a more interconnected global business environment.

corporate lawyer in turkey


Disputes in corporations can arise in various aspects of business operations, such as contractual disagreements, shareholder conflicts, employment disputes, intellectual property issues, and more. Resolving disputes in corporations efficiently and effectively is crucial to maintaining a healthy and productive business environment. Here are some common methods used for disputes in corporations :

  • Negotiation and Mediation: Negotiation is a process where parties involved in a dispute engage in discussions to reach a mutually acceptable resolution. It allows for direct communication and can be facilitated by legal counsel or experienced negotiators. Mediation involves the assistance of a neutral third party, the mediator, who helps the parties communicate, identify issues, and explore potential solutions. Both negotiation and mediation encourage open dialogue and allow parties to have control over the outcome.
  • Arbitration: Arbitration is a more formal alternative to litigation, where a neutral third party, the arbitrator, is appointed to hear the dispute and make a binding decision. The parties agree to abide by the arbitrator’s decision, which is usually faster and less formal than going to court. Arbitration can be conducted with or without legal representation and is often used in commercial disputes, offering confidentiality and flexibility.
  • Litigation: Litigation involves resolving disputes through the court system. Parties present their case before a judge or jury, who then make a final judgment. Litigation can be time-consuming, expensive, and adversarial, but it provides a formal and enforceable resolution. It may be necessary when other methods fail or when legal rights need to be determined or protected. This is the most common method used for resolving disputes in corporations regarding to corporate law in Turkey.
  • Expert Determination: In certain disputes where specialized knowledge or expertise is required, expert determination can be used. An independent expert in the relevant field is appointed to evaluate the dispute and provide a binding decision based on their expertise. This method is commonly used in technical, scientific, or industry-specific disputes.
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Clauses: Many corporate agreements include ADR clauses, which require parties to engage in a specific method of dispute resolution before resorting to litigation. These clauses may require negotiation, mediation, or arbitration, promoting the early resolution of disputes and reducing the need for litigation.
  • Internal Dispute Resolution Mechanisms: Some corporations establish internal procedures and mechanisms to address disputes within the organization. This may involve creating an internal dispute resolution committee, ombudsman, or grievance handling processes. These mechanisms allow for the resolution of disputes before they escalate and may help maintain relationships among employees or stakeholders.

The choice of dispute resolution method depends on various factors, including the nature and complexity of the dispute, the desired outcome, cost considerations, confidentiality requirements, and the willingness of the parties to cooperate. It is often advisable to seek legal advice or engage the services of a corporate lawyer in Turkey or a company lawyer to navigate the dispute resolution process effectively and ensure the protection of legal rights and interests.


Company lawyers play a crucial role in the business world, as their expertise and guidance are vital for companies to navigate the complex legal landscape. The importance of company lawyers stems from their ability to provide valuable legal advice and assistance in various aspects of corporate operations. These professionals possess a deep understanding of corporate law in Turkey, regulations, and industry-specific practices, enabling them to help companies comply with legal requirements, mitigate risks, and make informed decisions.

One key area where corporate lawyer in Turkey is in company formation and structuring. Corporate lawyer in Turkey assists in choosing the appropriate legal entity, drafting and reviewing foundational documents such as articles of incorporation and bylaws, and ensuring compliance with registration and licensing procedures. By guiding companies through this process, corporate lawyer in Turkey lay the foundation for a solid legal framework that supports the company’s growth and protects its interests.

Company lawyers also play a crucial role in corporate governance. They advise on best practices, help develop internal policies and procedures, and ensure compliance with regulatory requirements. This includes matters such as board composition, shareholder rights, and disclosure obligations. By fostering transparency, accountability, and ethical practices, corporate lawyers contribute to the long-term sustainability and reputation of the company.

In addition, corporate lawyer in Turkey is essential in managing corporate transactions, such as mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures. They conduct due diligence, negotiate and draft contracts, and handle regulatory approvals. Their expertise in transactional law allows them to identify potential risks, structure deals effectively, and protect the interests of their clients. Company lawyers are skilled negotiators who strive to achieve favorable outcomes while minimizing legal exposure.

Furthermore, corporate lawyer in Turkey is instrumental in resolving disputes in corporation and managing litigation. They provide guidance on alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, such as mediation or arbitration, and represent the company’s interests in negotiations and court proceedings. By effectively managing disputes, company lawyers help safeguard the company’s reputation, financial stability, and overall business operations.

Overall, the importance of corporate lawyer in Turkey lie in their ability to provide specialized legal counsel that supports companies in achieving their goals while ensuring compliance with legal obligations. Their knowledge of corporate law, coupled with their strategic thinking and problem-solving skills, allows them to navigate the intricacies of the legal system and protect the interests of their clients. In an increasingly complex business environment, company lawyers are essential partners for companies, helping them navigate legal challenges, mitigate risks, and make sound decisions that contribute to their long-term success.

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